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Change your password - Heartbleed Bug

Heartbleed Hask: The Passwords You Need Change ASAP.

latest update:

NSA knew about Heartbleed for two years – Bloomberg

The critical “Heartbleed” bug reported earlier this week to have affected the security of most of the internet was discovered by researchers at the United States National Security Agency two years earlier, according to a new report.

On Friday afternoon, Bloomberg News journalist Michael Riley reported that the NSA knew about the monstrous flaw for at least two years ahead of this week’s announcement, but kept it hidden from technologists and instead exploited it to hack the computers and correspondence of certain intelligence targets.

Earlier in the week, the open-source OpenSSL internet security project issued an emergency advisory after discovery of the Heartbleed bug revealed a weakness that may have for years allowed hackers to access online information otherwise thought to be protected by the SSL/TLS encryption standard used by around two-thirds of the web…. more here

Boomberg TV:

What and When Did NSA Know About Heartbleed Bug?


IF you use any of those sites change your password ASAP.

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
Facebook Unclear Yes Yes Yes “We added protections for Facebook’s implementation of OpenSSL before this issue was publicly disclosed. We haven’t detected any signs of suspicious account activity, but we encourage people to … set up a unique password.”
Instagram Yes Yes Yes Yes “Our security teams worked quickly on a fix and we have no evidence of any accounts being harmed. But because this event impacted many services across the web, we recommend you update your password on Instagram and other sites, particularly if you use the same password on multiple sites.”
LinkedIn No No No “We didn’t use the offending implementation of OpenSSL in or As a result, HeartBleed does not present a risk to these web properties.”
Pinterest Yes Yes Yes Yes “We fixed the issue on, and didn’t find any evidence of mischief. To be extra careful, we e-mailed Pinners who may have been impacted, and encouraged them to change their passwords.”
Tumblr Yes Yes Yes Yes “We have no evidence of any breach and, like most networks, our team took immediate action to fix the issue.”
Twitter No Yes Unclear Twitter wrote that OpenSSL “is widely used across the internet and at Twitter. We were able to determine that [our] servers were not affected by this vulnerability. We are continuing to monitor the situation.” While reiterating that they were unaffected, Twitter told Mashable that they did apply a patch.

Other Companies

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
Apple No No No “iOS and OS X never incorporated the vulnerable software and key web-based services were not affected.”
Amazon No No No “ is not affected.”
Google Yes Yes Yes Yes* “We have assessed the SSL vulnerability and applied patches to key Google services.” Search, Gmail, YouTube, Wallet, Play, Apps and App Engine were affected; Google Chrome and Chrome OS were not.

*Google said users do not need to change their passwords, but because of the previous vulnerability, better safe than sorry.

Microsoft No No No Microsoft services were not running OpenSSL, according to LastPass.
Yahoo Yes Yes Yes Yes “As soon as we became aware of the issue, we began working to fix it… and we are working to implement the fix across the rest of our sites right now.” Yahoo Homepage, Yahoo Search, Yahoo Mail, Yahoo Finance, Yahoo Sports, Yahoo Food, Yahoo Tech, Flickr and Tumblr were patched. More patches to come, Yahoo says.


Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
AOL No No No AOL told Mashable it was not running the vulnerable version of the software.
Gmail Yes Yes Yes Yes* “We have assessed the SSL vulnerability and applied patches to key Google services.”

*Google said users do not need to change their passwords, but because of the previous vulnerability, better safe than sorry.

Hotmail / Outlook No No No Microsoft services were not running OpenSSL, according to LastPass.
Yahoo Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes “As soon as we became aware of the issue, we began working to fix it… and we are working to implement the fix across the rest of our sites right now.”

Stores and Commerce

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
Amazon No No No “ is not affected.”
Amazon Web Services (for website operators) Yes Yes Yes Yes Most services were unaffected or Amazon was already able to apply mitigations (see advisory note here). Elastic Load Balancing, Amazon EC2, Amazon Linux AMI, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Ubuntu, AWS OpsWorks, AWS Elastic Beanstalk and Amazon CloudFront were patched.
eBay No No No “ was never vulnerable to this bug because we were never running a vulnerable version of OpenSSL.”
Etsy Yes* Yes Yes Yes Etsy said that only a small part of its infrastructure was vulnerable, and they have patched it.
GoDaddy Yes Yes Yes Yes “We’ve been updating GoDaddy services that use the affected OpenSSL version.” Full Statement
Groupon No No No “ does not utilize a version of the OpenSSL library that is susceptible to the Heartbleed bug.”
Nordstrom No No No “Nordstrom websites do not use OpenSSL encryption.”
PayPal No No No “Your PayPal account details were not exposed in the past and remain secure.” Full Statement
Target No No No “[We] launched a comprehensive review of all external facing aspects of… and do not currently believe that any external-facing aspects of our sites are impacted by the OpenSSL vulnerability.”
Walmart No No No “We do not use that technology so we have not been impacted by this particular breach.”

Videos, Photos, Games & Entertainment

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
Flickr Yes Yes Yes Yes “As soon as we became aware of the issue, we began working to fix it… and we are working to implement the fix across the rest of our sites right now.”
Hulu No No No No comment provided.
Minecraft Yes Yes Yes Yes “We were forced to temporary suspend all of our services. … The exploit has been fixed. We can not guarantee that your information wasn’t compromised.” More Information
Netflix Yes Yes Yes Yes “Like many companies, we took immediate action to assess the vulnerability and address it. We are not aware of any customer impact. It’s a good practice to change passwords from time to time, now would be a good time to think about doing so. “
SoundCloud Yes Yes Yes Yes SoundCloud emphasized that there were no indications of any foul play and that the company’s actions were simply precautionary.
YouTube Yes Yes Yes Yes* “We have assessed the SSL vulnerability and applied patches to key Google services.”

*Google said users do not need to change their passwords, but because of the previous vulnerability, better safe than sorry.


All the banks we contacted (see below) said they were unaffected by Heartbleed, but U.S. regulators have warned banks to patch their systems.

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
American Express No No No “There was no compromise of any customer data. While we are not requiring customers to take any specific action at this time, it is a good security practice to regularly update Internet passwords.”
Bank of America No No No “A majority of our platforms do NOT use OpenSSL, and the ones that do, we have confirmed no vulnerabilities.”
Barclays No No No No comment provided.
Capital One No No No “Capital One uses a version of encryption that is not vulnerable to Heartbleed.”
Chase No No No “These sites don’t use the encryption software that is vulnerable to the Heartbleed bug.”
Citigroup No No No Citigroup does not use Open SSL in “customer-facing retail banking and credit card sites and mobile apps”
E*Trade No No No E*Trade is still investigating.
Fidelity No No No “We have multiple layers of security in place to protect our customer sites and services.”
PNC No No No “We have tested our online and mobile banking systems and confirmed that they are not vulnerable to the Heartbleed bug.”
Schwab No No No “Efforts to date have not detected this vulnerability on or any of our online channels.”
Scottrade No No No “Scottrade does not use the affected version of OpenSSL on any of our client-facing platforms.”
TD Ameritrade No No No TD Ameritrade “doesn’t use the versions of openSSL that were vulnerable.”
TD Bank No No No “We’re currently taking precautions and steps to protect customer data from this threat and have no reason to believe any customer data has been compromised in the past.”
T. Rowe Price No No No “The T. Rowe Price websites are not vulnerable to the “Heartbleed” SSL bug nor were they vulnerable in the past.”
U.S. Bank No No No “We do not use OpenSSL for customer-facing, Internet banking channels, so U.S. Bank customer data is NOT at risk.”
Vanguard No No No “We are not using, and have not used, the vulnerable version of OpenSSL.”
Wells Fargo No No No No reason provided.

Government and Taxes

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say? No No No “We’re not vulnerable to the Heartbleed bug, as we do not use OpenSSL.”
FileYour No No No “We continuously patch our servers to keep them updated. However, the version we use was not affected by the issue, so no action was taken.”
H&R Block No No No “We are reviewing our systems and currently have found no risk to client data from this issue.”
Healthcare .gov No No No “ consumer accounts are not affected by this vulnerability.”
Intuit (TurboTax) No No No Turbotax wrote that “engineers have verified TurboTax is not affected by Heartbleed.” The company has issued new certificates anyway, and said it’s not “proactively advising” users to change their passwords.
IRS No No No “The IRS continues to accept tax returns as normal … and systems continue operating and are not affected by this bug. We are not aware of any security vulnerabilities related to this situation.”
TaxACT No No No “Customers can update their passwords at any time, although we are not proactively advising them to do so at this time.”
USAA Yes Yes Yes Yes USAA said that it has “already taken measures to help prevent a data breach and implemented a patch earlier this week.”


Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
Box Yes Yes Yes Yes “We’re currently working with our customers to proactively reset passwords and are also reissuing new SSL certificates for added protection.”
Dropbox Yes Yes Yes Yes On Twitter: “We’ve patched all of our user-facing services & will continue to work to make sure your stuff is always safe.”
Evernote No No No “Evernote’s service, Evernote apps, and Evernote websites … all use non-OpenSSL implementations of SSL/TLS to encrypt network communications.” Full Statement
GitHub Yes Yes Yes Yes GitHub said it has patched all its systems, deployed new SSL certificates and revoked old ones. GitHub is asking all users to change password, enable two-factor authentication and “revoke and recreate personal access and application tokens.”
IFTTT Yes Yes Yes Yes IFTTT emailed all its users and logged them out, prompting them to change their password on the site.
OKCupid Yes Yes Yes Yes “We, like most of the Internet, were stunned that such a serious bug has existed for so long and was so widespread.”
Spark Networks (JDate, Christian Mingle) No No No Sites do not use OpenSSL.
SpiderOak Yes Yes No Spideroak said it patched its servers, but the desktop client doesn’t use a vulnerable version of OpenSSL, so “customers do not need to take any special action.”
Wikipedia (if you have an account) Yes Yes Yes Yes “We recommend changing your password as a standard precautionary measure, but we do not currently intend to enforce a password change for all users.” Full Statement
WordPress Unclear Unclear Unclear WordPress tweeted that it has taken “immediate steps” and “addressed the Heartbleed OpenSSL exploit,” but it’s unclear if the issue is completely solder. When someone asked Matt Mullenweg, WordPress’ founding developer, when the site’s SSL certificates will be replaced and when users will be able to reset passwords, he simply answered: “soon.”
Wunderlist Yes Yes Yes Yes “You’ll have to simply log back into Wunderlist. We also strongly recommend that you reset your password for Wunderlist.” Full Statement

Password Managers

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
1Password No No No 1Password said in a blog post that its technology “is not built upon SSL/TLS in general, and not upon OpenSSL in particular.” So users don’t need to change their master password.
Dashlane Yes Yes No Dashlane said in a blog post users’ accounts were not impacted and the master password is safe as it is never transmitted. The site does use OpenSSL when syncing data with its servers but Dashlane said it has patched the bug, issued new SSL certificates and revoked previous ones.
LastPass Yes Yes No “Though LastPass employs OpenSSL, we have multiple layers of encryption to protect our users and never have access to those encryption keys.” Users don’t need to change their master passwords because they’re never sent to the server. But passwords for other sites stored in LastPass might need to be changed.

What should a site owner do if they think they might be affected by Panda?

How will webmaster come to know whether website is hit by Panda?

And, if  site is already hit, how to recover from Panda?

Answer: You need to read UNDERSTAND and implement Google Webmaster Guideline not when site hit but before and after that happens.

Implementation is a key.

Improve site contents on regular basis if possible.

Understanding Google Webmaster Guideline correctly – Success Factors for Implementation.

Answer from Matt Cutts ‎ Google Software Engineer:

Published on Sep 11, 2013

Reprinted with sole purpose to remind webmasters and website owners to read Google Webmaster Guideline.

Do not pay for SEO all info you every need Google provide.

But if you do not have time to read and follow simple and common scene instructions do not blame Google if your site is our of first page on Google Organic Search results
Some website owner looking for one single reason site was “hit” by algorithm update… ;-(

how to recover from google panda updateWhat counts as a high-quality site?

Our site quality algorithms are aimed at helping people find “high-quality” sites by reducing the rankings of low-quality content. The recent “Panda” change tackles the difficult task of algorithmically assessing website quality. Taking a step back, we wanted to explain some of the ideas and research that drive the development of our algorithms.

Below are some questions that one could use to access the “quality” of a page or an article. These are the kinds of questions we ask ourselves as we write algorithms that attempt to assess site quality. Think of it as our take at encoding what we think our users want.

Of course, we aren’t disclosing the actual ranking signals used in our algorithms because we don’t want folks to game our search results; but if you want to step into Google’s mindset, the questions below provide some guidance on how we’ve been looking at the issue:

  • Would you trust the information presented in this article?
  • Is this article written by an expert or enthusiast who knows the topic well, or is it more shallow in nature?
  • Does the site have duplicate, overlapping, or redundant articles on the same or similar topics with slightly different keyword variations?
  • Would you be comfortable giving your credit card information to this site?
  • Does this article have spelling, stylistic, or factual errors?
  • Are the topics driven by genuine interests of readers of the site, or does the site generate content by attempting to guess what might rank well in search engines?
  • Does the article provide original content or information, original reporting, original research, or original analysis?
  • Does the page provide substantial value when compared to other pages in search results?
  • How much quality control is done on content?
  • Does the article describe both sides of a story?
  • Is the site a recognized authority on its topic?
  • Is the content mass-produced by or outsourced to a large number of creators, or spread across a large network of sites, so that individual pages or sites don’t get as much attention or care?
  • Was the article edited well, or does it appear sloppy or hastily produced?
  • For a health related query, would you trust information from this site?
  • Would you recognize this site as an authoritative source when mentioned by name?
  • Does this article provide a complete or comprehensive description of the topic?
  • Does this article contain insightful analysis or interesting information that is beyond obvious?
  • Is this the sort of page you’d want to bookmark, share with a friend, or recommend?
  • Does this article have an excessive amount of ads that distract from or interfere with the main content?
  • Would you expect to see this article in a printed magazine, encyclopedia or book?
  • Are the articles short, unsubstantial, or otherwise lacking in helpful specifics?
  • Are the pages produced with great care and attention to detail vs. less attention to detail?
  • Would users complain when they see pages from this site?

Writing an algorithm to assess page or site quality is a much harder task, but we hope the questions above give some insight into how we try to write algorithms that distinguish higher-quality sites from lower-quality sites.

What you can do

We’ve been hearing from many of you that you want more guidance on what you can do to improve your rankings on Google, particularly if you think you’ve been impacted by the Panda update. We encourage you to keep questions like the ones above in mind as you focus on developing high-quality content rather than trying to optimize for any particular Google algorithm.

One other specific piece of guidance we’ve offered is that low-quality content on some parts of a website can impact the whole site’s rankings, and thus removing low quality pages, merging or improving the content of individual shallow pages into more useful pages, or moving low quality pages to a different domain could eventually help the rankings of your higher-quality content.

We’re continuing to work on additional algorithmic iterations to help webmasters operating high-quality sites get more traffic from search. As you continue to improve your sites, rather than focusing on one particular algorithmic tweak, we encourage you to ask yourself the same sorts of questions we ask when looking at the big picture. This way your site will be more likely to rank well for the long-term. In the meantime, if you have feedback, please tell us through our Webmaster Forum. We continue to monitor threads on the forum and pass site info on to the search quality team as we work on future iterations of our ranking algorithms.

Some ideas on how to evaluate the quality of a site:

Have a question? Ask it in our Webmaster Help Forum:…

Want your question to be answered on a video like this? Follow us on Twitter and look for an announcement when we take new questions:

More videos:…
Webmaster Central Blog: http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspo…
Webmaster Central:

❶Copy ❷Paste ❸Be Happy ★ Special Characters for Social Media are ♨HOT!☺

keyboard special characters💰 Special Characters Map for use on Twitter, FaceBook, Blogs and Social Media Sites

★ Free character maps online where you can copy and paste a special character from a Web page into

Here are some to get you started:

♈ ♉ ♊ ♋ ♌ ♍ ♎ ♏ ♐ ♑ ♒ ✐ ❂ ♓ ☨ ☧ ☦ ✁ ✃ ✄ ✎ ☬ ☫ ❉ ❆ ♅ ♇ ♆ ♙ ♟ ♔ ♕ ♖ ♗ ♘ © ® ™ … ∞ ≤ ≥ « » ç ∫ µ ◊ ı ¥ € £ ƒ $ º ª ‽ ♤ ✈ ♪ ☤ ♀ ☾ ☝ ♖ ✽ ☯ ♥ ☺ ♬ ☹ ☑ ✩ ☠ ✔ ✉ ♂ ✖ ✏ ♝ ❀ ♨ ❦ ☁ ✌ ♛ ❁ ☪ ☂ ★ ✇ ♺ ☭ ☃ ☛ ♞ ✿ ☮ ♘ ✾ ☄ ☟ ✝ ☼ ☚ ♟ ✺ ☥ ✂ ✍ ♕ ✵ ☉ ☇ ☈ ☡ ✠ ☊ ☋ ☌ ☍ ♁ ✇ ☢ ☣ ✣ ✡ ☞ ☜ ✜ ✛ ❥ ♗ ♚ ♛ ♜ ♝ ♞ Ω ≈ * § ∆ ¬ † & æ π ¡ ¿ ø å ∂ • ¶ œ Æ ß ÷ ‰ √ ª % ♠ ☎ ☻ ♫ ☒ ˚ ¯ º ‽ ≠ ˆ ˜ ˘ ∑ ƒ

❄ Add Special Characters in Twitter With the Windows Character Map

1. Click Start, open your list of All Programs, and open the Accessories folder. Navigate to System Tools and open the Character Map program.

2. Select a font from the list.

3. Check the Advanced view box.

4. In the Character set list, select Unicode.

5. In the Group by list, select All to browse all available characters by font, or select Unicode Subrange to browse characters by category.

6. Collect characters by highlighting them and clicking Select. When you are finished collecting, click Copy to copy the characters to the clipboard. You can now paste them into your message.
Use Facebook Emoticons

Here is the complete list of Facebook Chat emoticons and what character combinations create them. Note that these currently only work in Facebook Chat and will not display correctly in Facebook status updates or comments.

Smile 🙂 🙂 :] =)

Frown 😦 😦 :[ =(

Tongue 😛 😛 :-p :p =P

Grin 😀 😀 =D

Gasp :-O :O 😮 😮

Wink 😉 😉

Glasses 😎 8) B-) B)

Sunglasses 8-| 8| B-| B|

Grumpy 😡 >:-(

Unsure :/ :-/ :\ :-\

Cry 😥

Devil 3:) 3:-)

Angel O:) O:-)

Kiss :-* :*

Heart :O >:-O >:o >:-o

Pacman :v

Curly Lips :3

Robot :|]

Chris Putnam :putnam:

Shark (^^^)

Penguin <(“)

42 :42:

Using Emoticons in Gmail, Gchat, and Other Google Services

To unlock all available emoticons in Gmail:

1. Click the Gear icon in the top right corner, then click Labs.

2. Type emoji in the Search for labs box.

3. Enable Extra Emoji and click Save Changes. Enable the Extra Emoji option in Google Labs.

4. When composing a message, click the Insert Emoticon symbol to browse. Click any symbol to insert it into your message.

You must be in rich formatting mode to insert emoticons. In GChat, some emoticons are easy to select, but others are hidden:

1. Click the Gear icon in the top right corner, then click Mail Settings.

2. In the Chat tab, select Emoticons on at the bottom. Click Save Changes. Switch on emoticons in the Chat tab.

3. Open a new chat window and click the emoticon in the corner to browse GChat emoticons. Nice job!

One final tidbit: The emoticons listed in the GChat window aren’t all that are available.

Here is a top-secret list of hidden GChat emoticons:

Devil }:-)

Moustache :{

Robot [:|]

Poo ~@~

Rock Out \m/

Monkey :(|)

Bell +/’\

Crab V.v.V Wince >.<

Broken heart

Pig :(:)

Kiss 😡

keyboard and number pad special charactersUse your number keypad (ALT + Number Pad.) for these special characters

Special characters work on Google+, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and Tumblr.

☺           ALt+1

☻          ALt+2

♥            ALt+3

♦             ALt+4

♣            ALt+5

♠             ALt+6

•             ALt+7

◘            ALt+8

○             ALt+9

◙            ALt+10

♂          Alt + 11

♀          Alt + 12

♪             ALt+13

♫            ALt+14

☼           ALt+15

░            ALt+176

▒            ALt+177

▓            ALt+178

│             ALt+179

┤            ALt+180

╡            ALt+181

╢            ALt+182

╖            ALt+183

╕            ALt+184

╣            ALt+185

║            ALt+186

╗            ALt+187

╝            ALt+188

╜            ALt+189

╛            ALt+190

┐             ALt+191

└             ALt+192

┴            ALt+193

┬            ALt+194

├            ALt+195

─             ALt+196

┼            ALt+197

╞            ALt+198

╟            ALt+199

╚            ALt+200

╔            ALt+201

╩            ALt+202

╦            ALt+203

╠            ALt+204

═            ALt+205

╬            ALt+206

╧            ALt+207

╨            ALt+208

╤            ALt+209

╥            ALt+210

╙            ALt+211

╘            ALt+212

╒            ALt+213

╓            ALt+214

╫            ALt+215

╪            ALt+216

┘             ALt+217

┌             ALt+218

Special Characters in HTML

left single quote &lsquo;
right single quote &rsquo;
single low-9 quote &sbquo;
left double quote &ldquo;
right double quote &rdquo;
double low-9 quote &bdquo;
dagger &dagger;
double dagger &Dagger;
per mill sign &permil;
single left-pointing angle quote &lsaquo;
single right-pointing angle quote &rsaquo;
black spade suit &spades;
black club suit &clubs;
black heart suit &hearts;
black diamond suit &diams;
overline, = spacing overscore &oline;
leftward arrow &larr;
upward arrow &uarr;
rightward arrow &rarr;
downward arrow &darr;
trademark sign &trade;
unused &#00;-
horizontal tab
line feed
unused &#11;
exclamation mark ! !
double quotation mark &quot;
number sign # #
dollar sign $ $
percent sign % %
ampersand & &amp; &
left parenthesis ( (
right parenthesis ) )
asterisk * *
plus sign + +
comma , ,
period . .
slash / &frasl; /
digits 0-9 0-
colon : :
semicolon ; ;
less-than sign < &lt; <
equals sign = =
greater-than sign > &gt; >
question mark ? ?
at sign @ @
uppercase letters A-Z A-
left square bracket [ [
backslash \ \
right square bracket ] ]
caret ^ ^
horizontal bar (underscore) _ _
grave accent ` `
lowercase letters a-z a-
left curly brace { {
vertical bar | |
right curly brace } }
tilde ~ ~
ellipses &hellip;
en dash &ndash;
em dash &mdash;
unused ˜-
nonbreaking space &nbsp;  
inverted exclamation ¡ &iexcl; ¡
cent sign ¢ &cent; ¢
pound sterling £ &pound; £
general currency sign ¤ &curren; ¤
yen sign ¥ &yen; ¥
broken vertical bar ¦ &brvbar; or &brkbar; ¦
section sign § &sect; §
umlaut ¨ &uml; or &die; ¨
copyright © &copy; ©
feminine ordinal ª &ordf; ª
left angle quote « &laquo; «
not sign ¬ &not; ¬
soft hyphen ­ &shy; ­
registered trademark ® &reg; ®
macron accent ¯ &macr; or &hibar; ¯
degree sign ° &deg; °
plus or minus ± &plusmn; ±
superscript two ² &sup2; ²
superscript three ³ &sup3; ³
acute accent ´ &acute; ´
micro sign µ &micro; µ
paragraph sign &para;
middle dot · &middot; ·
cedilla ¸ &cedil; ¸
superscript one ¹ &sup1; ¹
masculine ordinal º &ordm; º
right angle quote » &raquo; »
one-fourth ¼ &frac14; ¼
one-half ½ &frac12; ½
three-fourths ¾ &frac34; ¾
inverted question mark ¿ &iquest; ¿
uppercase A, grave accent À &Agrave; À
uppercase A, acute accent Á &Aacute; Á
uppercase A, circumflex accent  &Acirc; Â
uppercase A, tilde à &Atilde; Ã
uppercase A, umlaut Ä &Auml; Ä
uppercase A, ring Å &Aring; Å
uppercase AE Æ &AElig; Æ
uppercase C, cedilla Ç &Ccedil; Ç
uppercase E, grave accent È &Egrave; È
uppercase E, acute accent É &Eacute; É
uppercase E, circumflex accent Ê &Ecirc; Ê
uppercase E, umlaut Ë &Euml; Ë
uppercase I, grave accent Ì &Igrave; Ì
uppercase I, acute accent Í &Iacute; Í
uppercase I, circumflex accent Î &Icirc; Î
uppercase I, umlaut Ï &Iuml; Ï
uppercase Eth, Icelandic Ð &ETH; Ð
uppercase N, tilde Ñ &Ntilde; Ñ
uppercase O, grave accent Ò &Ograve; Ò
uppercase O, acute accent Ó &Oacute; Ó
uppercase O, circumflex accent Ô &Ocirc; Ô
uppercase O, tilde Õ &Otilde; Õ
uppercase O, umlaut Ö &Ouml; Ö
multiplication sign × &times; ×
uppercase O, slash Ø &Oslash; Ø
uppercase U, grave accent Ù &Ugrave; Ù
uppercase U, acute accent Ú &Uacute; Ú
uppercase U, circumflex accent Û &Ucirc; Û
uppercase U, umlaut Ü &Uuml; Ü
uppercase Y, acute accent Ý &Yacute; Ý
uppercase THORN, Icelandic Þ &THORN; Þ
lowercase sharps, German ß &szlig; ß
lowercase a, grave accent à &agrave; à
lowercase a, acute accent á &aacute; á
lowercase a, circumflex accent â &acirc; â
lowercase a, tilde ã &atilde; ã
lowercase a, umlaut ä &auml; ä
lowercase a, ring å &aring; å
lowercase ae æ &aelig; æ
lowercase c, cedilla ç &ccedil; ç
lowercase e, grave accent è &egrave; è
lowercase e, acute accent é &eacute; é
lowercase e, circumflex accent ê &ecirc; ê
lowercase e, umlaut ë &euml; ë
lowercase i, grave accent ì &igrave; ì
lowercase i, acute accent í &iacute; í
lowercase i, circumflex accent î &icirc; î
lowercase i, umlaut ï &iuml; ï
lowercase eth, Icelandic ð &eth; ð
lowercase n, tilde ñ &ntilde; ñ
lowercase o, grave accent ò &ograve; ò
lowercase o, acute accent ó &oacute; ó
lowercase o, circumflex accent ô &ocirc; ô
lowercase o, tilde õ &otilde; õ
lowercase o, umlaut ö &ouml; ö
division sign ÷ &divide; ÷
lowercase o, slash ø &oslash; ø
lowercase u, grave accent ù &ugrave; ù
lowercase u, acute accent ú &uacute; ú
lowercase u, circumflex accent û &ucirc; û
lowercase u, umlaut ü &uuml; ü
lowercase y, acute accent ý &yacute; ý
lowercase thorn, Icelandic þ &thorn; þ
lowercase y, umlaut ÿ &yuml; ÿ
Alpha &Alpha; Α
alpha &alpha; α
Beta &Beta; Β
beta &beta; β
Gamma &Gamma; Γ
gamma &gamma; γ
Delta &Delta; Δ
delta &delta; δ
Epsilon &Epsilon; Ε
epsilon &epsilon; ε
Zeta &Zeta; Ζ
zeta &zeta; ζ
Eta &Eta; Η
eta &eta; η
Theta &Theta; Θ
theta &theta; θ
Iota &Iota; Ι
iota &iota; ι
Kappa &Kappa; Κ
kappa &kappa; κ
Lambda &Lambda; Λ
lambda &lambda; λ
Mu &Mu; Μ
mu &mu; μ
Nu &Nu; Ν
nu &nu; ν
Xi &Xi; Ξ
xi &xi; ξ
Omicron &Omicron; Ο
omicron &omicron; ο
Pi &Pi; Π
pi &pi; π
Rho &Rho; Ρ
rho &rho; ρ
Sigma &Sigma; Σ
sigma &sigma; σ
Tau &Tau; Τ
tau &tau; τ
Upsilon &Upsilon; Υ
upsilon &upsilon; υ
Phi &Phi; Φ
phi &phi; φ
Chi &Chi; Χ
chi &chi; χ
Psi &Psi; Ψ
psi &psi; ψ
Omega &Omega; Ω
omega &omega; ω
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