❶Copy ❷Paste ❸Be Happy ★ Special Characters for Social Media are ♨HOT!☺

keyboard special characters💰 Special Characters Map for use on Twitter, FaceBook, Blogs and Social Media Sites

★ Free character maps online where you can copy and paste a special character from a Web page into

Here are some to get you started:

♈ ♉ ♊ ♋ ♌ ♍ ♎ ♏ ♐ ♑ ♒ ✐ ❂ ♓ ☨ ☧ ☦ ✁ ✃ ✄ ✎ ☬ ☫ ❉ ❆ ♅ ♇ ♆ ♙ ♟ ♔ ♕ ♖ ♗ ♘ © ® ™ … ∞ ≤ ≥ « » ç ∫ µ ◊ ı ¥ € £ ƒ $ º ª ‽ ♤ ✈ ♪ ☤ ♀ ☾ ☝ ♖ ✽ ☯ ♥ ☺ ♬ ☹ ☑ ✩ ☠ ✔ ✉ ♂ ✖ ✏ ♝ ❀ ♨ ❦ ☁ ✌ ♛ ❁ ☪ ☂ ★ ✇ ♺ ☭ ☃ ☛ ♞ ✿ ☮ ♘ ✾ ☄ ☟ ✝ ☼ ☚ ♟ ✺ ☥ ✂ ✍ ♕ ✵ ☉ ☇ ☈ ☡ ✠ ☊ ☋ ☌ ☍ ♁ ✇ ☢ ☣ ✣ ✡ ☞ ☜ ✜ ✛ ❥ ♗ ♚ ♛ ♜ ♝ ♞ Ω ≈ * § ∆ ¬ † & æ π ¡ ¿ ø å ∂ • ¶ œ Æ ß ÷ ‰ √ ª % ♠ ☎ ☻ ♫ ☒ ˚ ¯ º ‽ ≠ ˆ ˜ ˘ ∑ ƒ

❄ Add Special Characters in Twitter With the Windows Character Map

1. Click Start, open your list of All Programs, and open the Accessories folder. Navigate to System Tools and open the Character Map program.

2. Select a font from the list.

3. Check the Advanced view box.

4. In the Character set list, select Unicode.

5. In the Group by list, select All to browse all available characters by font, or select Unicode Subrange to browse characters by category.

6. Collect characters by highlighting them and clicking Select. When you are finished collecting, click Copy to copy the characters to the clipboard. You can now paste them into your message.
Use Facebook Emoticons

Here is the complete list of Facebook Chat emoticons and what character combinations create them. Note that these currently only work in Facebook Chat and will not display correctly in Facebook status updates or comments.

Smile 🙂 🙂 :] =)

Frown 😦 😦 :[ =(

Tongue 😛 😛 :-p :p =P

Grin 😀 😀 =D

Gasp :-O :O 😮 😮

Wink 😉 😉

Glasses 😎 8) B-) B)

Sunglasses 8-| 8| B-| B|

Grumpy 😡 >:-(

Unsure :/ :-/ :\ :-\

Cry 😥

Devil 3:) 3:-)

Angel O:) O:-)

Kiss :-* :*

Heart :O >:-O >:o >:-o

Pacman :v

Curly Lips :3

Robot :|]

Chris Putnam :putnam:

Shark (^^^)

Penguin <(“)

42 :42:

Using Emoticons in Gmail, Gchat, and Other Google Services

To unlock all available emoticons in Gmail:

1. Click the Gear icon in the top right corner, then click Labs.

2. Type emoji in the Search for labs box.

3. Enable Extra Emoji and click Save Changes. Enable the Extra Emoji option in Google Labs.

4. When composing a message, click the Insert Emoticon symbol to browse. Click any symbol to insert it into your message.

You must be in rich formatting mode to insert emoticons. In GChat, some emoticons are easy to select, but others are hidden:

1. Click the Gear icon in the top right corner, then click Mail Settings.

2. In the Chat tab, select Emoticons on at the bottom. Click Save Changes. Switch on emoticons in the Chat tab.

3. Open a new chat window and click the emoticon in the corner to browse GChat emoticons. Nice job!

One final tidbit: The emoticons listed in the GChat window aren’t all that are available.

Here is a top-secret list of hidden GChat emoticons:

Devil }:-)

Moustache :{

Robot [:|]

Poo ~@~

Rock Out \m/

Monkey :(|)

Bell +/’\

Crab V.v.V Wince >.<

Broken heart

Pig :(:)

Kiss 😡

keyboard and number pad special charactersUse your number keypad (ALT + Number Pad.) for these special characters

Special characters work on Google+, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and Tumblr.

☺           ALt+1

☻          ALt+2

♥            ALt+3

♦             ALt+4

♣            ALt+5

♠             ALt+6

•             ALt+7

◘            ALt+8

○             ALt+9

◙            ALt+10

♂          Alt + 11

♀          Alt + 12

♪             ALt+13

♫            ALt+14

☼           ALt+15

░            ALt+176

▒            ALt+177

▓            ALt+178

│             ALt+179

┤            ALt+180

╡            ALt+181

╢            ALt+182

╖            ALt+183

╕            ALt+184

╣            ALt+185

║            ALt+186

╗            ALt+187

╝            ALt+188

╜            ALt+189

╛            ALt+190

┐             ALt+191

└             ALt+192

┴            ALt+193

┬            ALt+194

├            ALt+195

─             ALt+196

┼            ALt+197

╞            ALt+198

╟            ALt+199

╚            ALt+200

╔            ALt+201

╩            ALt+202

╦            ALt+203

╠            ALt+204

═            ALt+205

╬            ALt+206

╧            ALt+207

╨            ALt+208

╤            ALt+209

╥            ALt+210

╙            ALt+211

╘            ALt+212

╒            ALt+213

╓            ALt+214

╫            ALt+215

╪            ALt+216

┘             ALt+217

┌             ALt+218

Special Characters in HTML

left single quote &lsquo;
right single quote &rsquo;
single low-9 quote &sbquo;
left double quote &ldquo;
right double quote &rdquo;
double low-9 quote &bdquo;
dagger &dagger;
double dagger &Dagger;
per mill sign &permil;
single left-pointing angle quote &lsaquo;
single right-pointing angle quote &rsaquo;
black spade suit &spades;
black club suit &clubs;
black heart suit &hearts;
black diamond suit &diams;
overline, = spacing overscore &oline;
leftward arrow &larr;
upward arrow &uarr;
rightward arrow &rarr;
downward arrow &darr;
trademark sign &trade;
unused &#00;-
horizontal tab
line feed
unused &#11;
exclamation mark ! !
double quotation mark &quot;
number sign # #
dollar sign $ $
percent sign % %
ampersand & &amp; &
left parenthesis ( (
right parenthesis ) )
asterisk * *
plus sign + +
comma , ,
period . .
slash / &frasl; /
digits 0-9 0-
colon : :
semicolon ; ;
less-than sign < &lt; <
equals sign = =
greater-than sign > &gt; >
question mark ? ?
at sign @ @
uppercase letters A-Z A-
left square bracket [ [
backslash \ \
right square bracket ] ]
caret ^ ^
horizontal bar (underscore) _ _
grave accent ` `
lowercase letters a-z a-
left curly brace { {
vertical bar | |
right curly brace } }
tilde ~ ~
ellipses &hellip;
en dash &ndash;
em dash &mdash;
unused ˜-
nonbreaking space &nbsp;  
inverted exclamation ¡ &iexcl; ¡
cent sign ¢ &cent; ¢
pound sterling £ &pound; £
general currency sign ¤ &curren; ¤
yen sign ¥ &yen; ¥
broken vertical bar ¦ &brvbar; or &brkbar; ¦
section sign § &sect; §
umlaut ¨ &uml; or &die; ¨
copyright © &copy; ©
feminine ordinal ª &ordf; ª
left angle quote « &laquo; «
not sign ¬ &not; ¬
soft hyphen ­ &shy; ­
registered trademark ® &reg; ®
macron accent ¯ &macr; or &hibar; ¯
degree sign ° &deg; °
plus or minus ± &plusmn; ±
superscript two ² &sup2; ²
superscript three ³ &sup3; ³
acute accent ´ &acute; ´
micro sign µ &micro; µ
paragraph sign &para;
middle dot · &middot; ·
cedilla ¸ &cedil; ¸
superscript one ¹ &sup1; ¹
masculine ordinal º &ordm; º
right angle quote » &raquo; »
one-fourth ¼ &frac14; ¼
one-half ½ &frac12; ½
three-fourths ¾ &frac34; ¾
inverted question mark ¿ &iquest; ¿
uppercase A, grave accent À &Agrave; À
uppercase A, acute accent Á &Aacute; Á
uppercase A, circumflex accent  &Acirc; Â
uppercase A, tilde à &Atilde; Ã
uppercase A, umlaut Ä &Auml; Ä
uppercase A, ring Å &Aring; Å
uppercase AE Æ &AElig; Æ
uppercase C, cedilla Ç &Ccedil; Ç
uppercase E, grave accent È &Egrave; È
uppercase E, acute accent É &Eacute; É
uppercase E, circumflex accent Ê &Ecirc; Ê
uppercase E, umlaut Ë &Euml; Ë
uppercase I, grave accent Ì &Igrave; Ì
uppercase I, acute accent Í &Iacute; Í
uppercase I, circumflex accent Î &Icirc; Î
uppercase I, umlaut Ï &Iuml; Ï
uppercase Eth, Icelandic Ð &ETH; Ð
uppercase N, tilde Ñ &Ntilde; Ñ
uppercase O, grave accent Ò &Ograve; Ò
uppercase O, acute accent Ó &Oacute; Ó
uppercase O, circumflex accent Ô &Ocirc; Ô
uppercase O, tilde Õ &Otilde; Õ
uppercase O, umlaut Ö &Ouml; Ö
multiplication sign × &times; ×
uppercase O, slash Ø &Oslash; Ø
uppercase U, grave accent Ù &Ugrave; Ù
uppercase U, acute accent Ú &Uacute; Ú
uppercase U, circumflex accent Û &Ucirc; Û
uppercase U, umlaut Ü &Uuml; Ü
uppercase Y, acute accent Ý &Yacute; Ý
uppercase THORN, Icelandic Þ &THORN; Þ
lowercase sharps, German ß &szlig; ß
lowercase a, grave accent à &agrave; à
lowercase a, acute accent á &aacute; á
lowercase a, circumflex accent â &acirc; â
lowercase a, tilde ã &atilde; ã
lowercase a, umlaut ä &auml; ä
lowercase a, ring å &aring; å
lowercase ae æ &aelig; æ
lowercase c, cedilla ç &ccedil; ç
lowercase e, grave accent è &egrave; è
lowercase e, acute accent é &eacute; é
lowercase e, circumflex accent ê &ecirc; ê
lowercase e, umlaut ë &euml; ë
lowercase i, grave accent ì &igrave; ì
lowercase i, acute accent í &iacute; í
lowercase i, circumflex accent î &icirc; î
lowercase i, umlaut ï &iuml; ï
lowercase eth, Icelandic ð &eth; ð
lowercase n, tilde ñ &ntilde; ñ
lowercase o, grave accent ò &ograve; ò
lowercase o, acute accent ó &oacute; ó
lowercase o, circumflex accent ô &ocirc; ô
lowercase o, tilde õ &otilde; õ
lowercase o, umlaut ö &ouml; ö
division sign ÷ &divide; ÷
lowercase o, slash ø &oslash; ø
lowercase u, grave accent ù &ugrave; ù
lowercase u, acute accent ú &uacute; ú
lowercase u, circumflex accent û &ucirc; û
lowercase u, umlaut ü &uuml; ü
lowercase y, acute accent ý &yacute; ý
lowercase thorn, Icelandic þ &thorn; þ
lowercase y, umlaut ÿ &yuml; ÿ
Alpha &Alpha; Α
alpha &alpha; α
Beta &Beta; Β
beta &beta; β
Gamma &Gamma; Γ
gamma &gamma; γ
Delta &Delta; Δ
delta &delta; δ
Epsilon &Epsilon; Ε
epsilon &epsilon; ε
Zeta &Zeta; Ζ
zeta &zeta; ζ
Eta &Eta; Η
eta &eta; η
Theta &Theta; Θ
theta &theta; θ
Iota &Iota; Ι
iota &iota; ι
Kappa &Kappa; Κ
kappa &kappa; κ
Lambda &Lambda; Λ
lambda &lambda; λ
Mu &Mu; Μ
mu &mu; μ
Nu &Nu; Ν
nu &nu; ν
Xi &Xi; Ξ
xi &xi; ξ
Omicron &Omicron; Ο
omicron &omicron; ο
Pi &Pi; Π
pi &pi; π
Rho &Rho; Ρ
rho &rho; ρ
Sigma &Sigma; Σ
sigma &sigma; σ
Tau &Tau; Τ
tau &tau; τ
Upsilon &Upsilon; Υ
upsilon &upsilon; υ
Phi &Phi; Φ
phi &phi; φ
Chi &Chi; Χ
chi &chi; χ
Psi &Psi; Ψ
psi &psi; ψ
Omega &Omega; Ω
omega &omega; ω
password dot

Victory Day 8-9 May – 68th Anniversary of Victory in World War II

С Днем Победы-Victory Day 9 May

Victory Day on May 8 and May 9 Two separate capitulation events took place at the time

Tuesday 8 May 1945 was ‘Victory in Europe’ (VE) Day, and it marked the formal end of Hitler’s war.

With it came the end of six years of misery, suffering, courage and endurance across the world.

Two separate capitulation events took place at the time. First, the capitulation to the Allied nations in Reims was signed on 7 May 1945, effective 23:01 CET 8 May. This date is commonly referred to as the V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day) in most western European countries. The other World War II victory day, the V-J day (Victory in Japan Day) is commemorated in August, and is of considerably lesser significance in Europe.

However, the Soviet Union’s only representative in Reims was General Ivan Susloparov, the Military Liaison Mission Commander. General Susloparov’s scope of authority was not entirely clear, and he had no means of immediate contact with the Kremlin, but nevertheless decided to sign for the Soviet side.
Susloparov was caught off guard; he had no instructions from Moscow. But if he did not sign, he risked a German surrender without Soviet participation. However, he noted that it could be replaced with a new version in the future. Joseph Stalin was later displeased by these events, believing that the German surrender should have been accepted only by the envoy of the USSR Supreme command and signed only in Berlin and insisted the Reims protocol be considered preliminary, with the main ceremony to be held in Berlin, where Marshal Zhukov was at the time, as the latter recounts in his memoirs:

“ [Quoting Stalin:] Today, in Reims, Germans signed the preliminary act on an unconditional surrender.The main contribution, however, was done by Soviet people and not by the Allies, therefore the capitulation must be signed in front of the Supreme Command of all countries of the anti-Hitler coalition, and not only in front of the Supreme Command of Allied Forces. Moreover, I disagree that the surrender was not signed in Berlin, which was the center of Nazi aggression. We agreed with the Allies to consider the Reims protocol as preliminary. ” (

Therefore, another ceremony was organized in a surviving manor in the outskirts of Berlin late on 8 May, when it was already 9 May in Moscow due to the difference in time zones. Field-Marshal Wilhelm Keitel submitted the capitulation of the Wehrmacht to Marshal Georgy Zhukov in the Soviet Army headquarters in Berlin-Karlshorst. To commemorate the victory in the war, the ceremonial Moscow Victory Parade was held in the Soviet capital on 24 June 1945 (four years and two days after the beginning of Operation Barbarossa – the invasion of the Soviet Union).

Victory Day Parade in Moscow every year May 9

Victory Day Parade in Moscow every year May 9

Victory Day 9 May marks the capitulation of Nazi Germany to the Soviet Union in the Second World War (also known as the Great Patriotic War in the Soviet Union). It was first inaugurated in the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union, following the signing of the surrender document late in the evening on 8 May 1945 (after midnight, thus on 9 May, by Moscow Time). The Soviet government announced the victory early on 9 May after the signing ceremony in Berlin.

Though the official inauguration happened in 1945 (which means it has been celebrated since 1946), the holiday became a non-labour day only in 1965 and only in some of the countries.

In the former Soviet Union this festival was celebrated to commemorate the Red Army’s victory over the Nazi forces.

National WWII Memorial “Save Our History” Teachers Guide and Interactive TimelineHistory GuideThe History Channel� developed a teacher’s manual that accompanied its special on the National World War II Memorial. You can download the guide by clicking on the links below. The document is in two parts and can be viewed with Adobe’s Acrobat Reader. (Download Adobe Acrobat Reader here.)

Part 1 (334k)
Part 2 (205k)

The History Channel

Note: The American Battle Monuments Commission is no longer raising funds for the WWII Memorial. Please do not implement the fund raising suggestions provided in chapter IV of the Teacher’s Guide unless for a cause other than the National WWII Memorial.

Victory in World War II References:

Joint Ventures

joint venture (JV) is a business agreement

A joint venture (JV) is a business agreement in which parties agree to develop, for a finite time, a new entity and new assets by contributing equity.

By Alla Gul (MBA)Our Contributor

A joint venture (JV) is a legal organization that takes the form of a partnership in which individuals, groups of individuals, companies, or corporations jointly undertake a transaction for mutual profit (“Joint Venture”, n.d.).

The parties agree to create a new entity by contributing equity.

Then they share in the revenues, expenses, and control of the enterprise. This paper discusses why joint ventures may be formed and what benefits may be expected when domestic and foreign companies form a venture. Then resent joint venture example is briefly illustrated.

The partnership can happen between big companies in an industry to differentiate, for example. The joint venture can occur between two small businesses that partner in order to successfully fight their bigger competitors. In addition, companies with identical products and services can also join forces “to penetrate markets they wouldn’t or couldn’t consider without investing tremendous resources” (“Joint Venturing”, n.d., p. 2). Next, a large company can decide to form a joint venture with a smaller business “in order to quickly acquire critical intellectual property, technology, or resources otherwise hard to obtain, even with plenty of cash at their disposal” (“Joint Venturing”, n.d., p. 2). To add, “There are good business and accounting reasons to create a joint venture with a company that has complementary capabilities and resources, such as distribution channels, technology, or finance” (“Joint Ventures (VS)”,  n.d.). Below are some major reasons for forming a joint venture:

Internal reasons

1.         Build on company’s strengths

2.         Spreading costs and risks

3.         Improving access to financial resources

4.         Economies of scale and advantages of size

5.         Access to new technologies and customers

6.         Access to innovative managerial practices

Competitive goals

1.         Influencing structural evolution of the industry

2.         Pre-empting competition

3.         Defensive response to blurring industry boundaries

4.         Creation of stronger competitive units

5.         Speed to market

6.         Improved agility

Strategic goals

1.         Synergies

2.         Transfer of technology/skills

3.         Diversification

(“Joint Venture”, n.d.). 

Joint ventures between companies headquartered in different countries can be particularly beneficial. First, companies may use joint ventures to gain entrance into foreign markets. For example, foreign companies form joint ventures with domestic companies that already are present in markets the foreign companies would like to enter.  Moreover, due to local regulations, some markets can only be accessed via joint venturing with a local business (“Joint Venturing”, 101, n.d., p.2). For example, China and to some extent India, require foreign companies to form joint ventures with domestic firms in order to enter a market (“Joint Venture”, n.d). Next, the foreign companies “generally bring new technologies and business practices into the joint venture, while the domestic companies already have the relationships and requisite governmental documents within the country along with being entrenched in the domestic industry”( “Joint venture”, n.d.). For example, joint ventures are common in the oil and gas industry, and are often formed between a local and foreign company. “A joint venture is often seen as a very viable business alternative in this sector, as the companies can complement their skill sets while it offers the foreign company a geographic presence” (“Joint Venture”, n.d.).

Recently the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and CAE, Canada signed an agreement to establish a joint venture company that will open a helicopter simulator training center in Bangalore, India.

The company, Helicopter Academy To Train By Simulation Of Flying (HATSOFF), will be owned equally by HAL and CAE. The training center is expected to begin operations in late 2008 by providing both civil and military helicopter pilot and maintenance training services. (“HAL”, 2007)

Questions to Answer Before You Approach a New Joint Venture Partner

Questions to Answer Before You Approach a New Joint Venture Partner.
Click to read more…

CAE is a world leader in providing simulation and modeling technologies and integrated training solutions for the civil aviation industry and defense forces around the globe (“About CAE”, n.d.). The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is in the list of top 100 defense companies in the world (“HAL 34th”, n.d.). Among its products are helicopters, aircrafts, advances communication and navigation equipment, and aerospace equipment (“Our Products”, n.d.). By forming the joint venture, the CAE is trying to extend its business-jet training network, to expend its distribution channels, to increase sales of its stimulators, and to capture and extend into India’s growing market (“Remarks for”, 2007,  p.3).  For the Indian partner, this joint venture provides the opportunity to differentiate, to acquire new skills and technology and to extend its marketing reach. Finally, both companies are expected to benefit from a development of a new market and from growth in revenues and profits.

To conclude, a joint venture is a strategic alliance where two or more parties form a partnership to share markets, intellectual property, assets, knowledge, and,  profits. (“Joint Venturing”, n.d., p.1).  The partnership may be formed between domestic companies or between domestic and foreign partners. When carefully planned and successfully implemented, joint ventures bring multiple benefits to parties involved

 By Alla Gul (MBA)Our Contributor


About CAE. CAE Inc. Retrieved September 26, 2007 from


HAL, Canada’s CAE ink joint venture for helicopter simulator training center. (2007).

Yahoo Business News. Retrieved September 26, 2007 from  http://in.news.yahoo.com/070926/139/6l8gn.html

HAL 34th among top 100 defense firms. Hindustan Aeronautic Limited. Retrieved

 September 26, 2007 from http://www.hal-india.com/34th.asp

Joint ventures. Cornell University Law School.  Retrieved September 26, 2007 from


Joint venture. Wikipedia. Retrieved September 24, 2007 from


Joint ventures (JVs). E-coach: Sharing Capital, Technology, Human Resources, Risks

 and Rewards. Retrieved September 26, 2007 from


Our products. Hindustan Aeronautic Limited. Retrieved September 26, 2007 from


Remarks for first quarter fiscal year 2008 results. (2007). CAE. Retrieved September 26,

 2007 from


Scott Allen. Joint venturing 101. About.com- Entrepreneurs. Retrieved September 26,

 2007 from http://entrepreneurs.about.com/od/beyondstartup/a/jointventures.htm