All Winter Olympics Game Medals and Winner #Socialympics


The 2014 Winter Olympics

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially the XXII Olympic Winter Games, or the 22nd Winter Olympics, is a major international multi-sport event being held in Sochi, Russia.

#Socialympics
The Winter Olympic Games
is a major international sporting event that occurs once every four years. The first celebration of the Winter Olympics was held in Chamonix, France, in 1924. The original sports were alpine and cross-country skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, ski jumping and speed skating. The Games were held every four years from 1924 until 1936, after which they were interrupted by World War II. The Olympics resumed in 1948 and were celebrated every four years. The Winter and Summer Olympic Games were held in the same years until 1992, after a 1986 decision by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to place the Summer and Winter Games on separate four-year cycles in alternating even-numbered years. Because of the change, the next Winter Olympics after 1992 were in 1994.

XXII Olympic Winter Games Medals Count in Sochi 2014 Olympics : http://www.sochi2014.com/en/medals

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially the XXII Olympic Winter Games, or the 22nd Winter Olympics, is a major international multi-sport event being held in Sochi, Russia. Officially scheduled for 7 February through 23 February 2014, opening rounds in figure skating, skiing, and snowboard competitions were held on the eve of the Opening Ceremony, 6 February 2014. Both the Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics are being organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee (SOC). Sochi was selected as the host city in July 2007, during the 119th IOC Session held in Guatemala City. The Sochi Olympics will be the first Olympics in the Russian Federation since the breakup of the USSR in 1991. The USSR was the host nation for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.

98 events in 15 winter sport disciplines will be held throughout the Games.
A number of new competitions—a total of twelve accounting for gender—will be held during the Games, including biathlon mixed relay, women’s ski jumping, mixed-team figure skating, mixed-team luge, half-pipe skiing, ski and snowboard slopestyle, and snowboard parallel slalom. The events will be held around two clusters of new venues; an Olympic Park was constructed in Sochi’s Imeretinsky Valley on the coast of the Black Sea, with Fisht Olympic Stadium and the Games’ indoor venues located within walking distance, and snow events will be held in the resort settlement of Krasnaya Polyana.

Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics Game Medals and Winner

Medal count

Rank Country Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Russian Fed. 13 11 9 33
2 Norway 11 5 10 26
3 Canada 10 10 5 25
4 United States 9 7 12 28
5 Netherlands 8 7 9 24
6 Germany 8 6 5 19
7 Switzerland 6 3 2 11
8 Belarus 5 0 1 6
9 Austria 4 8 5 17
10 France 4 4 7 15
11 Poland 4 1 1 6
12 China 3 4 2 9
13 Korea 3 3 2 8
14 Sweden 2 7 6 15
15 Czech Republic 2 4 2 8
16 Slovenia 2 2 4 8
17 Japan 1 4 3 8
18 Finland 1 3 1 5
19 Great Britain 1 1 2 4
20 Ukraine 1 0 1 2
21 Slovakia 1 0 0 1
22 Italy 0 2 6 8
23 Latvia 0 2 2 4
24 Australia 0 2 1 3
25 Croatia 0 1 0 1
26 Kazakhstan 0 0 1 1
Albania 0 0 0 0
Andorra 0 0 0 0
Argentina 0 0 0 0
Armenia 0 0 0 0
Azerbaijan 0 0 0 0
Belgium 0 0 0 0
Bermuda 0 0 0 0
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0 0 0 0
Brazil 0 0 0 0
Bulgaria 0 0 0 0
Cayman Islands 0 0 0 0
Chile 0 0 0 0
Chinese Taipei 0 0 0 0
Cyprus 0 0 0 0
Denmark 0 0 0 0
Dominica 0 0 0 0
Estonia 0 0 0 0
Georgia 0 0 0 0
Greece 0 0 0 0
Hong Kong, CHN 0 0 0 0
Hungary 0 0 0 0
Iceland 0 0 0 0
Independent Olympic Participant 0 0 0 0
India 0 0 0 0
IR Iran 0 0 0 0
Ireland 0 0 0 0
Israel 0 0 0 0
Jamaica 0 0 0 0
Kyrgyzstan 0 0 0 0
Lebanon 0 0 0 0
Liechtenstein 0 0 0 0
Lithuania 0 0 0 0
Luxembourg 0 0 0 0
Malta 0 0 0 0
Mexico 0 0 0 0
Monaco 0 0 0 0
Mongolia 0 0 0 0
Montenegro 0 0 0 0
Morocco 0 0 0 0
Nepal 0 0 0 0
New Zealand 0 0 0 0
Pakistan 0 0 0 0
Paraguay 0 0 0 0
Peru 0 0 0 0
Philippines 0 0 0 0
Portugal 0 0 0 0
Rep. of Moldova 0 0 0 0
Romania 0 0 0 0
San Marino 0 0 0 0
Serbia 0 0 0 0
Spain 0 0 0 0
Tajikistan 0 0 0 0
Thailand 0 0 0 0
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 0 0 0 0
Timor-Leste 0 0 0 0
Togo 0 0 0 0
Tonga 0 0 0 0
Turkey 0 0 0 0
Uzbekistan 0 0 0 0
Venezuela 0 0 0 0
Virgin Isl, B 0 0 0 0
Virgin Isl, US 0 0 0 0
Zimbabwe 0 0 0 0

List of All Winter Olympics Game Medals and Winner Before Sochi 2014

Rank Country Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Norway 107 106 90 303
2 United States 87 95 71 253
3 USSR 78 57 59 194
4 Germany 68 72 48 188
5 Austria 55 70 76 201
6 Canada 52 45 48 145
7 Sweden 48 33 48 129
8 Switzerland 44 37 46 127
9 Finland 41 59 56 156
10 GDR 39 36 35 110
11 Italy 37 32 37 106
12 Russian Fed. 36 29 26 91
13 Netherlands 29 31 26 86
14 France 27 27 40 94
15 Korea 23 14 8 45
16 FRG 13 15 13 41
17 China 9 18 17 44
18 Japan 9 13 15 37
19 Unified Team 9 6 8 23
20 Great Britain 9 3 10 22
21 Olympic United Team of Germany 8 6 5 19
22 Czech Republic 5 5 6 16
23 Australia 5 1 3 9
24 Croatia 4 5 1 10
25 Estonia 4 2 1 7
26 Czechoslovakia 2 8 15 25
27 Poland 2 6 6 14
28 Liechtenstein 2 2 5 9
29 Belarus 1 4 4 9
31 Bulgaria 1 2 3 6
30 Kazakhstan 1 3 2 6
=33 Belgium 1 1 3 5
=33 Ukraine 1 1 3 5
32 Slovakia 1 2 1 4
35 Spain 1 0 1 2
36 Uzbekistan 1 0 0 1
38 Slovenia 0 2 5 7
39 Hungary 0 2 4 6
37 Yugoslavia 0 3 1 4
40 Latvia 0 2 1 3
42 DPR Korea 0 1 1 2
41 Luxembourg 0 2 0 2
45 Romania 0 0 1 1
=43 Denmark 0 1 0 1
=43 New Zealand 0 1 0 1
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Victory Day 8-9 May – 68th Anniversary of Victory in World War II


С Днем Победы-Victory Day 9 May

Victory Day on May 8 and May 9 Two separate capitulation events took place at the time

Tuesday 8 May 1945 was ‘Victory in Europe’ (VE) Day, and it marked the formal end of Hitler’s war.

With it came the end of six years of misery, suffering, courage and endurance across the world.

Two separate capitulation events took place at the time. First, the capitulation to the Allied nations in Reims was signed on 7 May 1945, effective 23:01 CET 8 May. This date is commonly referred to as the V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day) in most western European countries. The other World War II victory day, the V-J day (Victory in Japan Day) is commemorated in August, and is of considerably lesser significance in Europe.

However, the Soviet Union’s only representative in Reims was General Ivan Susloparov, the Military Liaison Mission Commander. General Susloparov’s scope of authority was not entirely clear, and he had no means of immediate contact with the Kremlin, but nevertheless decided to sign for the Soviet side.
Susloparov was caught off guard; he had no instructions from Moscow. But if he did not sign, he risked a German surrender without Soviet participation. However, he noted that it could be replaced with a new version in the future. Joseph Stalin was later displeased by these events, believing that the German surrender should have been accepted only by the envoy of the USSR Supreme command and signed only in Berlin and insisted the Reims protocol be considered preliminary, with the main ceremony to be held in Berlin, where Marshal Zhukov was at the time, as the latter recounts in his memoirs:

“ [Quoting Stalin:] Today, in Reims, Germans signed the preliminary act on an unconditional surrender.The main contribution, however, was done by Soviet people and not by the Allies, therefore the capitulation must be signed in front of the Supreme Command of all countries of the anti-Hitler coalition, and not only in front of the Supreme Command of Allied Forces. Moreover, I disagree that the surrender was not signed in Berlin, which was the center of Nazi aggression. We agreed with the Allies to consider the Reims protocol as preliminary. ” (

Therefore, another ceremony was organized in a surviving manor in the outskirts of Berlin late on 8 May, when it was already 9 May in Moscow due to the difference in time zones. Field-Marshal Wilhelm Keitel submitted the capitulation of the Wehrmacht to Marshal Georgy Zhukov in the Soviet Army headquarters in Berlin-Karlshorst. To commemorate the victory in the war, the ceremonial Moscow Victory Parade was held in the Soviet capital on 24 June 1945 (four years and two days after the beginning of Operation Barbarossa – the invasion of the Soviet Union).

Victory Day Parade in Moscow every year May 9

Victory Day Parade in Moscow every year May 9

Victory Day 9 May marks the capitulation of Nazi Germany to the Soviet Union in the Second World War (also known as the Great Patriotic War in the Soviet Union). It was first inaugurated in the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union, following the signing of the surrender document late in the evening on 8 May 1945 (after midnight, thus on 9 May, by Moscow Time). The Soviet government announced the victory early on 9 May after the signing ceremony in Berlin.

Though the official inauguration happened in 1945 (which means it has been celebrated since 1946), the holiday became a non-labour day only in 1965 and only in some of the countries.

In the former Soviet Union this festival was celebrated to commemorate the Red Army’s victory over the Nazi forces.

National WWII Memorial “Save Our History” Teachers Guide and Interactive TimelineHistory GuideThe History Channel� developed a teacher’s manual that accompanied its special on the National World War II Memorial. You can download the guide by clicking on the links below. The document is in two parts and can be viewed with Adobe’s Acrobat Reader. (Download Adobe Acrobat Reader here.)

Download:
Part 1 (334k)
Part 2 (205k)

The History Channel

Note: The American Battle Monuments Commission is no longer raising funds for the WWII Memorial. Please do not implement the fund raising suggestions provided in chapter IV of the Teacher’s Guide unless for a cause other than the National WWII Memorial.

Victory in World War II References:

The First Four Notes of the Beethoven’s Fifth


 Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven in 1804, the year he began work on the Fifth Symphony. Detail of a portrait by W. J. Mähler

The Symphony No. 5 in C minor of Ludwig van Beethoven, Op. 67

Fifth Symphony was written in 1804–1808. It is one of the most popular and best-known compositions in classical music, and one of the most frequently played symphonies.

First performed in Vienna‘s Theater an der Wien in 1808, the work achieved its prodigious reputation soon afterwards. E. T. A. Hoffmann described the symphony as “one of the most important works of the time”.

It begins by stating a distinctive four-note “short-short-short-long” motif twice: (About this sound listen (help·info))

The symphony, and the four-note opening motif in particular, are well known worldwide, with the motif appearing frequently in popular culture, from disco to rock and roll, to appearances in film and television.

The opening of Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5.

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Ludwig van Beethoven – 5th Symphony 5 – Symphonie Nr. 5 – Best of Classical Music

beethoven-symphony-5-opening

Beethoven 5 th Symphony Opening

A new book, a new recording and some old instruments, all addressing the most memorable phrase in music: the opening of Beethoven‘s Fifth Symphony.

Matthew Guerrieri has written a book about this symphony, called The First Four Notes: Beethoven’s Fifth and the Human Imagination. (Source:http://www.wbur.org/npr/165495617/beethovens-famous-4-notes-truly-revolutionary-music)

Guerrieri writes about how Beethoven’s piece resonated with everyone from revolutionaries to Romantics, and German nationalists to anti-German resistance fighters.

So many people have found so much meaning in just those first four notes. But Guerrieri says that we really don’t know all that much of what Beethoven meant by them.

“The most common story that is told is that Beethoven allegedly said that the opening of the symphony was supposedly symbolizing fate knocking at the door. And this is probably an invention of his biographer, although we can’t really tell,” Guerrieri tells NPR’s Robert Siegel. “The other story going around at the time that Beethoven wrote it was that he had gotten the opening motif from the song of a bird. And that story just sort of fell away as the fate symbolism took over. But in Beethoven’s time, and to Beethoven, that actually would have been a fairly noble way of getting a musical idea.”

A Romantic ‘Bombshell,’ Delivered By Beethoven’s Fifth

English: Trio from Beethoven's 3rd. Symphony

English: Trio from Beethoven’s 3rd. Symphony (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In his book, Guerrieri writes:

“The Romantic era [of the early 19th century] never really ended … Every time a singer-songwriter is praised for projecting autobiographical authenticity, every time a movie star expresses the desire for a project that is ‘more personal,’ every time a flop is subsequently recategorized as a before-its-time masterpiece, all these are reverberations of the bombshell of Romanticism. And one of its pre-eminent delivery systems was Beethoven’s Fifth.”

The author adds: “I think that the Romantic era is another thing that we just sort of take for granted, because they’ve kind of always been there for us. But it’s amazing how many of these ideas were new around the time that Beethoven was writing music. The whole idea that music picks up where language leaves off — which is pretty much a cliche nowadays — that was a very specific Romantic idea, and it’s one that lasted. Also, the idea that the artist is somehow more privileged in accessing these things beyond language, in accessing the sublime, in accessing glimpses of the divine, however you want to characterize it. A lot of the ideas we use to talk about music are these ideas.”

And how to play those four notes? “The two things that have been argued about more than any other technical aspect of the opening are the tempo and the fermata that Beethoven stuck in the opening,” says Guerrieri. “A fermata is an indefinite hold — the conductor can hold onto a note as long as he wants.”

Holding On And Letting Fly: The Tempo

The question of tempo relates back to an interesting story Guerrieri tells in his book. The metronome was an invention of Beethoven’s day; he didn’t have access to it when he was writing his early symphonies. But later, he came into contact with it and loved the device. “He immediately buys one and sits down and starts going back over all his old scores and putting in metronome markings,” Guerrieri says. “And he picked a tempo for the Fifth Symphony that even today sounds really, astonishingly fast.”

The setting he chose was 108 beats per minute — so fast, so hard to play, Guerrieri says, that people have been theorizing for centuries about why Beethoven might have mismarked his own symphony. A broken metronome? Advancing deafness? Nobody knows.

Dah-Dah-Dah-Duh For ‘Victory’

Here’s one other story Guerrieri writes about those first four notes: In World War II, the anti-German resistance in occupied Belgium needed a simple graffiti symbol. A Belgian came up with the letter “V.” It stood equally for victoire — “victory” in French — and freiheit, or “freedom,” in Flemish. “Once that ‘V’ idea got back to the BBC and they wanted to start using it in their overseas broadcasts,” says Guerrieri, “it was at the BBC that they had the idea of combining it with the Morse code for ‘V’: three short and one long. Somebody at the BBC realized that matches Beethoven’s Fifth. So they could start using that as a little tag to symbolize that [something] was going to be a pro-Ally, propaganda broadcast from the BBC.”

For full article and interview with author visit: http://www.wbur.org/npr/165495617/beethovens-famous-4-notes-truly-revolutionary-music

Auguste Rodin – Promenades of an Impressionist


Auguste Rodin

Zentralbild Auguste Rodin

Rodin was born in 1840 into a working-class family in Paris, the second child of Marie Cheffer and Jean-Baptiste Rodin, who was a police department clerk. He was largely self-educated, and began to draw at age ten. Between ages 14 and 17, Rodin attended the Petite École, a school specializing in art and mathematics, where he studied drawing and painting. His drawing teacher, Horace Lecoq de Boisbaudran, believed in first developing the personality of his students so that they observed with their own eyes and drew from their recollections. Rodin still expressed appreciation for his teacher much later in life. It was at Petite École that he first met Jules Dalou and Alphonse Legros.

RODIN – View from 1910.

“PROMENADES OF AN IMPRESSIONIST” By JAMES HUNEKER 1910 – contributed by: History of Art and Paintings

Rodin, the French sculptor, deserves well of our new century; the old one did so incontinently batter him. The anguish of his own Hell’s Portal he endured before he moulded its clay between his thick clairvoyant fingers. Misunderstood, therefore misrepresented, he with his pride and obstinacy aroused—the one buttressing the other—was not to be budged from his formulas and practice of sculpture. Then the world of art swung unwillingly and unamiably toward him, perhaps more from curiosity than conviction. Rodin became famous. And he is more misunderstood than ever.
His very name, with its memory of Eugène Sue‘s romantic rancour—you recall that impossible and diabolic Jesuit Rodin in The Mysteries of Paris?—has been thrown in his teeth. He has been called rusé, even a fraud; while the wholesale denunciation of his work as erotic is unluckily still green in our memory. The sculptor, who in 1877 was accused of “faking” his life-like Age of Brass—now at the Luxembourg—by taking a mould from the living model, also experienced the discomfiture of being assured some years later that, not knowing the art of modelling, his statue of Balzac was only an evasion of difficulties. And this to the man who had in the interim wrought so many masterpieces.

To give him his due he stands prosperity not quite as well as he did poverty. In every great artist there is a large area of self-esteem; it is the reservoir which he must, during years of drought and defeat, draw upon to keep his soul fresh. Without the consoling fluid of egoism, genius must perish in the dust of despair. But fill this source to the brim, accelerate the speed of its current, and artistic deterioration may ensue.

Rodin - The Gates of Hell, a monumental sculptural group

The Gates of Hell, a monumental sculptural group depicting scenes from Dante’s Inferno in high relief. Often lacking a clear conception of his major works, Rodin compensated with hard work and a striving for perfection

Rodin has been called, fatuously, the second Michael Angelo—as if there could ever be a replica of any human. He has been hailed as a modern Praxiteles. And he is often damned as a myopic decadent whose insensibility to pure line and deficiency in constructional power have been elevated by his admirers into sorry virtues. Yet is Rodin justly appraised? Do his friends not overdo their glorification, his critics their censure? Nothing so stales a demigod’s image as the perfumes burned before it by his worshippers; the denser the smoke the sooner crumble the feet of their idol.

However, in the case of Rodin the fates have so contrived their malicious game that at no point of his career has he been without the company of envy, chagrin, and slander. Often, when he had attained a summit, he would find himself thrust down into a deeper valley. He has mounted to triumphs and fallen to humiliations, but his spirit has never been quelled, and if each acclivity he scales is steeper, the air atop has grown purer, more stimulating, and the landscape spreads wider before him. He can say with Dante: “La montagna che drizza voi che il mondo fece torti.” Rodin’s mountain has always straightened in him what the world made crooked. The name of his mountain is Art. A born non-conformist, Rodin makes the fourth of that group of nineteenth-century artists—Richard Wagner, Henrik Ibsen, and Edouard Manet—who taught a deaf and blind world to hear and see and think and feel.

Rodin's The Thinker (1879–1889)

Rodin’s The Thinker (1879–1889) is among the most recognized works in all of sculpture.

Is it not dangerous to say of a genius that his work alone should count, that his life is negligible? Though Rodin has followed Flaubert’s advice to artists to lead ascetic lives that their art might be the more violent, nevertheless his career, colourless as it may seem to those who better love stage players and the watery comedies of society—this laborious life of a poor sculptor—is not to be passed over if we are to make any estimate of his art. He, it is related, always becomes enraged at the word “inspiration,” enraged at the common notion that fire descends from heaven upon the head of the favoured neophyte of art. Rodin believes in but one inspiration—nature. He swears he does not invent, but copies nature. He despises improvisation, has contemptuous words for “fatal facility,” and, being a slow-moving, slow-thinking man, he admits to his councils those who have conquered art, not by assault, but by stealth and after years of hard work. He sympathises with Flaubert’s patient toiling days, he praises Holland because after Paris it seemed slow. “Slowness is a beauty,” he declared. In a word, Rodin has evolved a theory and practice of his art that is the outcome—like all theories, all techniques—of his own temperament. And that temperament is giant-like, massive, ironic, grave, strangely perverse at times; and it is the temperament of a magician doubled by that of a mathematician.

Books are written about him. De Maupassant describes him in Notre Coeur with picturesque precision. He is tempting as a psychologic study. He appeals to the literary, though he is not “literary.” His modelling arouses tempests, either of dispraise or idolatry. To see him steadily, critically, after a visit to his studios in Paris or Meudon, is difficult. If the master be there then you feel the impact of a personality that is as cloudy as the clouds about the base of a mountain and as impressive as the mountain. Yet a pleasant, unassuming, sane man, interested in his clay—absolutely—that is, unless you discover him to be more interested in humanity. If you watch him well you may find yourself well watched; those peering eyes possess a vision that plunges into your soul. And the soul this master of marbles sees as nude as he sees the human body. It is the union of artist and psychologist that places Rodin apart. These two arts he practises in a medium that has hitherto not betrayed potentialities for such almost miraculous performances. Walter Pater is quite right in maintaining that each art has its separate subject-matter; nevertheless, in the debatable province of Rodin’s sculpture we find strange emotional power, hints of the art of painting and a rare musical suggestiveness. But this is not playing the game according to the rules of Lessing and his Laocoön.

Let us drop this old æsthetic rule of thumb and confess that during the last century a new race of artists sprang up from some strange element and, like flying-fish, revealed to a wondering world their composite structures. Thus we find Berlioz painting with his instrumentation; Franz Liszt, Tschaikowsky, and Richard Strauss filling their symphonic poems with drama and poetry, and Richard Wagner inventing an art which he believed to embrace the seven arts. And there is Ibsen, who used the dramatic form as a vehicle for his anarchistic ideas; and Nietzsche, who was such a poet that he was able to sing a mad philosophy into life; and Rossetti, who painted poems and made poetry that is pictorial. Sculpture was the only art that had resisted this universal disintegration, this imbroglio of the arts. No sculptor before Rodin had dared to break the line, dared to shiver the syntax of stone. For sculpture is a static, not a dynamic art—is it not? Let us observe the rules, though we preserve the chill spirit of the cemetery. What Mallarmé attempted to do with French poetry Rodin accomplished in clay. His marbles do not represent but present emotion, are the evocation of emotion itself; as in music, form and substance coalesce. If he does not, as did Mallarmé, arouse “the silent thunder afloat in the leaves,” he can summon from the vasty deep the spirits of love, hate, pain, despair, sin, beauty, ecstasy; above all, ecstasy. Now the primal gift of ecstasy is bestowed upon few. In our age Keats had it, and Shelley; Byron, despite his passion, missed it, and so did Wordsworth. We find it in Swinburne, he had it from the first; but few French poets have it. Like the “cold devils” of Félicien Rops, coiled in frozen ecstasy, the blasts of hell about them, Charles Baudelaire can boast the dangerous attribute. Poe and Heine knew ecstasy, and Liszt also; Wagner was the master adept of his century. Tschaikowsky followed him close; and in the tiny piano scores of Chopin ecstasy is pinioned in a few bars, the soul often rapt to heaven in a phrase. Richard Strauss has shown a rare variation on the theme of ecstasy; voluptuousness troubled by pain, the soul tormented by stranger nuances.

Rodin was a naturalist, less concerned with monumental expression than with character and emotion.

Under French law no more than twelve casts of this piece were permitted after Rodin’s death. The London casting, purchased by the British Government in 1911, is one of those.
Rodin often duplicated parts of his statues. For example two of the heads on this grouping are identical and a third only slightly altered. Some of the hands are used twice.

Rodin is of this tormented choir; he is master of its psychology. It may be the decadence, as any art is in decadence which stakes the parts against the whole. The same was said of Beethoven by the followers of Haydn, and the successors of Richard Strauss will be surely abused quite as violently as the Wagnerites abuse Strauss to-day—employing against him the same critical artillery employed against Wagner. That this ecstasy should be aroused by pictures of love and death, as in the case of Poe and Baudelaire, Wagner and Strauss, must not be adjudged as a black crime. In the Far East they hypnotise neophytes with a bit of broken mirror, for in the kingdom of art, as in the Kingdom of Heaven, there are many mansions. Possibly it was a relic of his early admiration and study of Baudelaire that set Wagner to extorting ecstasy from his orchestra by images of death and love; and no doubt the temperament which seeks such combinations—a temperament commoner in mediæval days than ours—was inherent in Wagner. He makes his Isolde sing mournfully and madly over a corpse and, throwing herself upon the dead body of Tristan, die shaken by the sweet cruel pains of love. Richard Strauss closely patterns after Wagner in his Salome, there is the head of a dead man, and there is the same dissolving ecstasy. Both men play with similar counters—love and death, and death and love. And so Rodin. In Pisa we may see (attributed by Vasari) Orcagna’s fresco of the Triumph of Death. The sting of the flesh and the way of all flesh are inextricably blended in Rodin’s Gate of Hell. His principal reading for forty years has been Dante and Baudelaire. The Divine Comedy and Les Fleurs du Mal are the key-notes in this white symphony of Auguste Rodin’s. Love and life and bitterness and death rule the themes of his marbles. Like Beethoven and Wagner he breaks the academic laws of his art, but then he is Rodin, and where he achieves magnificently lesser men would miserably perish. His large tumultuous music is for his chisel alone to ring out and sing.

 
“PROMENADES OF AN IMPRESSIONIST” By JAMES HUNEKER 1910 – contributed by: History of Art and Paintings
 
 
“Rodin was a naturalist, less concerned with monumental expression than with character and emotion”
 

Why do we vote on Tuesday? ELECTION 2012: WHAT’S AT STAKE


Your-vote-countsWhy do we vote on Tuesday?

Election Day in the United States is the day set by law for the general elections of public officials. It occurs on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November.

The earliest possible date is November 2 and the latest possible date is November 8.

The next election will be held on November 6, 2012.  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Election_Day_(United_States) )

A uniform date for choosing presidential electors was instituted by the Congress in 1845.

Many theories have been advanced as to why the Congress settled on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.

The actual reasons, as shown in records of Congressional debate on the bill in December 1844, were fairly prosaic. The bill initially set the national day for choosing presidential electors on “the first Tuesday in November,” in years divisible by four (1848, 1852, etc.). But it was pointed out that in some years the period between the first Tuesday in November and the first Wednesday in December (when the electors met in their state capitals to vote) would be more than 34 days, in violation of the existing Electoral College law.

So, the bill was amended to move the national date for choosing presidential electors forward to the Tuesday after the first Monday in November, a date scheme already used in the state of New York.

In 1845, the United States was largely an agrarian society. Farmers often needed a full day to travel by horse-drawn vehicles to the county seat to vote.

Tuesday was established as Election Day because it did not interfere with the Biblical Sabbath or with market day, which was on Wednesday in many towns.
November was chosen because the economy was driven by farmers

“There’s religious, economic and political reasons we vote on Tuesday,” said Mower county auditor/treasurer Doug Groh. “It all stems from 1845.”

It was the year James Polk became our 11th president and Texas became our 28th state.

“Horse and buggy days, and the county seat was the polling place,” Groh told us.

“A lot of people might have to travel and stay overnight to vote,” added Austin city clerk Lucy Johnson. And since Sunday was a day of rest:

“They allowed Monday to travel to the county seat to vote, so then they voted on Tuesday,” Groh explained.

“November was their first slow month,” said Johnson.

And there was a safe political reason for keeping the vote in November.

“It’s far enough from April 15th when you last paid taxes you kind of forgot, and you haven’t started to think about paying taxes again on April 15th to influence your vote,” Johnson explained.

(Source: http://kaaltv.com/article/stories/s2817722.shtml )

seal-of-the-president-of-the-united-states

Seal of the President of the United States

Some activists oppose this date on the grounds that it decreases voter turnout because most citizens work on Tuesdays, and advocate making Election Day a federal holiday or allowing voters to cast their ballots over two or more days. The United Auto Workers union has negotiated making Election Day a holiday for its workers at the U.S. domestic auto manufacturers.

Many states have implemented early voting, which allows the voters to cast ballots, in many cases up to a month early. Also, all states have some kind of absentee ballot system. The state of Oregon, for example, performs all major elections through postal voting that are sent to voters several weeks before Election Day. Some companies will let their employees come in late or leave early on Election Day to allow them an opportunity to get to their precinct and vote.

Move Election Day to the weekend…

Soboroff and Israel say Tuesday voting bars access to democracy and keeps America’s voter turnout chronically low. They point to census survey data showing that 1 in 4 people says he’s too busy or his schedule doesn’t allow him to get to the polls.

Their solution? Move Election Day to the weekend. Israel has been introducing and reintroducing a bill to move voting to the weekend.

But moving poll day turns out to be no easy task. The weekend voting bill keeps dying in committee. And earlier this year, when the Government Accountability Office talked to elections officials about how weekend voting would work, they came up with a list of logistical difficulties, from keeping equipment safe overnight to recruiting poll workers to work the weekend. There’s also, of course, no guarantee that moving Election Day would change voter turnout.

Then there’s the simple fact that Americans have gotten used to voting on Tuesday. “We’re a very traditional county, and that became a tradition in a lot of ways,” says Ritchie. “That’s the way people were accustomed to doing it, people could count on it, you could set your calendars on it.”

(Source: http://www.npr.org/blogs/itsallpolitics/2012/10/23/162484410/why-are-elections-on-tuesdays )

Need To Know by PBS.

What’s at Stake reviews top campaign issues and considers how the outcome of the election could impact voters’ lives.

What’s at Stake: PBS Election 2012 From jobs and taxes to climate change, PBS presents an in-depth look at the issues


Check this video out – What’s at Stake: PBS Election 2012

Episode: What’s at Stake: PBS Election 2012

What’s at Stake leads viewers through issues at the center of this year’s campaigns: jobs and tax policy, entitlements and debt, healthcare, and foreign policy. Frontline, PBS Newshour,
Need to Know and Washington Week in Review contribute their special reporting and analysis.

Latest news One Day before Election Day!

“WASHINGTON (Reuters) – President Barack Obama and Republican challenger Mitt Romney make a frenetic dash to a series of crucial swing states on Monday, delivering their final arguments to voters on the last day of an extraordinarily close race for the White House.

After a long, bitter and expensive campaign, national polls show Obama and Romney are essentially deadlocked ahead of Tuesday’s election, although Obama has a slight advantage in the eight or nine battleground states that will decide the winner.”


“Romney, who would be the first Mormon president, has centered his campaign pitch on his own experience as a business leader at a private equity fund and said it made him uniquely suited to create jobs.

Obama’s campaign fired back with ads criticizing Romney’s experience and portraying the multimillionaire as out of touch with everyday Americans.”
(Source: http://news.yahoo.com/obama-romney-sprint-unpredictable-campaign-finish-021401657.html)

Russia Celebrates 200th Anniversary of 1812 Patriotic-War


Borodino battle was the key battle of French-Russian war 1812

200th anniversary of Borodino battle. Borodino battle was the key battle of French-Russian war 1812

Russia celebrates 200th anniversary of 1812 Patriotic War
Сегодня ровно 200 лет Великому Сражению!

The Patriotic War of 1812 began on June 24 when the Napoleonic army entered the Russian Empire.
The Borodino Battle took place between the Russian army led by Mikhail Kutuzov and the French troops commanded by Napoleon Bonaparte in the village of Borodino 125 km to the west from Moscow on September 7, 1812.
“September 7, 1812, was a day that perpetuated the heroism of Russian soldiers, becoming an eternal memorial to their indomitable courage.”
That’s how Russia’s Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov described it after engaging Napoleon’s army in a bloody battle near the village of Borodino 150 km west of Moscow.

The Borodino Battle lasted for six hours and resulted in the retreat of the Russian army.

The Borodino Battle death toll was extremely high with up to 8,500 people dying on both sides every hour.

The Battle of Borodino (Russian: Бородинское сражение, Borodinskoe srazhenie

; French: Bataille de la Moskova), fought on September 7, 1812, was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the French invasion of Russia and all Napoleonic Wars, involving more than 250,000 troops and resulting in at least 70,000 casualties.

Mikhail Kutuzov at the Battle of Borodino by A...

Mikhail Kutuzov at the
Battle of Borodino by Anatoly Pavlovich Shepelyuk (1906-1972), 1952
(State Borodino War and History Museum and Reserve, Borodino, Moscow
Oblast) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The French Grande Armée under Emperor Napoleon I attacked the Imperial Russian Army of General Mikhail Kutuzov near the village of Borodino, west of the town of Mozhaysk, and eventually captured the main positions on the battlefield, but failed to destroy the Russian army despite heavy losses.

Mikhail Kutuzov  was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire

Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire

About a third of Napoleon’s soldiers were killed or wounded; Russian losses were also heavy, but her casualties could be replaced since large forces of militia were already with the Russian Army and replacement depots which were close by had already been gathering and training troops.

The battle itself ended with the Russian Army out of position.

The state of exhaustion of the French forces and lack of information on the Russian Army’s condition led Napoleon to remain on the battlefield with his army instead of the forced pursuit that had marked other campaigns that he had conducted in the past.

The entirety of Napoleon’s Imperial Guard, however, was still available to his disposition and in refusing to implement it he lost his singular chance to destroy the Russian army.

The Russians consider it their victory although the Russian army had to retreat after a battle that was inconclusive in the military sense.

Nevertheless, Napoleon failed to conquer Russia and was ousted from the country by late December.

The Russians let the Napoleonic army occupy Moscow, which had been
almost completely burnt down, but cut his overstretched supply lines and
forced him to retreat a month later. The regrouped and reinforced
Russian Army then drove Napoleon’s freezing and starved forces out of
Russia and all the way to Paris

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821)

“Of the fifty battles I have fought, the most terrible was that before Moscow,” Napoleon Bonaparte later recalled. “The French showed themselves to be worthy victors, and the Russians can rightly call themselves invincible.”

«Из всех моих сражений самое ужасное то, которое я дал под Москвой. Французы в нём показали себя достойными одержать победу, а русские стяжали право быть непобедимыми…” (Наполеон I Бонапарт)

The battle at Borodino was a pivotal point in the campaign, as it was the last offensive action fought by Napoleon in Russia. By withdrawing, the Russian army preserved its combat strength, eventually allowing it to force Napoleon out of the country.

Historical reports of the battle differed markedly depending on
whether they originated from supporters of the French or Russian sides. Factional
fighting between senior officers within each army also led to
conflicting accounts and disagreements over the roles of particular
individuals.There’s still some historical dispute about who won the battle of Borodino. On the one hand Mikhail Kutuzov ordered his army to retreat and abandon Moscow.
On the other hand, this battle became the turning point in the war, and the French army was badly weakened for the first time.

1812 Battle of Borodino map

Map of the troops positions in Borodino Battle

Map of the troops positions in the morning of September, 7, 1812. Battle of Borodino or Bataille de la Moskowa in french. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

“Where are the POWs?” Napoleon would wonder as his army fought its way deeper into Russia.

He, who had easily subdued half of Europe and had crowned himself Emperor of France, was amazed at the unprecedented degree of resistance he had little expected to encounter.

More than 250,000 soldiers clashed on the Borodino field about 50 square km in area in the early morning of September 7 two centuries ago. About a thousand cannons traded crossfire almost incessantly from dawn to sunset.

The losses on both sides were enormous – 2,500 men per every hour of fighting, says historian Andrei Sakharov, a correspondence member of the Academy of Sciences:

“There were several aspects to the Borodino battle. First and foremost, there was a huge moral aspect for the Russian army, for the people of Russia and for the Russian history.

The battle ended in a draw, so to say. Neither the French won, nor the Russians backed down.

Both sides maintained their positions. But the fact that the Russian army withstood the onslaught of the monstrous colossus – Napoleon the Invincible – was absolutely incredible.”

Battle of Borodino mapCarl von Clausewitz, a Prussian officer and military theorist who took part in the 1812 campaign, thought that the only way to conquer Russia was to try to play on the internal contradictions between its power and its people, otherwise it was unconquerable, he said. The Battle of Borodino showed that, unfortunately for Napoleon, there were no contradictions. Andrei Sakharov:

“Why is the 1812 war called Patriotic? Because it united the nation and that unity vividly manifested itself at Borodino.”

War 1812 Battle of Borodino mapNapoleon described Borodino as the greatest battle he had ever fought. And indeed, it was the bloodiest battle of the 19th century. The death toll on both sides totaled about 100,000. But though he had suffered no defeat at Borodino, Napoleon still lost the war. Why?

“Because, says historian Vadim Roginsky, Napoleon failed to reach the main goal – to crush the Russian army. And that predetermined to a large extent the unfavorable outcome for him.”

A few months after Borodino, Napoleon’s Grande Armee was completely routed. Later, he called his invasion of Russia a “fatal mistake”.

Russia celebrates 200th anniversary of 1812 Patriotic War

Russia celebrates 200th anniversary of 1812 Patriotic War 

Souses:

http://patrioticwarof1812.com/

http://patrioticwarof1812.com/2012/04/01/invasion-of-russia/

http://english.people.com.cn/102774/7936097.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleonic_War
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon

http://rbth.ru/borodino

http://rbth.ru/articles/2012/09/03/200-year_history_napoleons_army_is_back_to_borodino_17891.html